Testing out-of Products Contribution in order to Opportunity Intake during the summer and Winter months

Unit from People Nutrition, Department out of Dining Technology and Peoples Nourishment, Farming School off Athens, 75 Iera Odos St., Athens 11855, Greece; E-Mails: (O.Yards.); (V.B.); (A beneficial.Z.)

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Abstract

All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001)> Keywords: water balance questionnaire WBQ, winter, summer, hydration, sugar-sweetened drinks, drink

step one. Introduction

Drinks regarding types of tea, java, milk products, juice, soft drinks, diet products, energy beverages and you will alcoholic beverages appear in an enormous and you can expanding level of solutions. Range touches preferences needs, health conditions, and you will lifetime needs, just in case many different beverages arrive, it’s likely to reach euhydration .

Beverages lead around twenty five%–50% out of drinking habits [dos,step three,4], ergo he or she is necessary for appointment everyday h2o requires and achieving euhydration. Hydration might https://brightwomen.net/fi/norjalaiset-naiset/ have been in the repairs of regular real and you will cognitive qualities .

not, it’s been argued one to beverages contribute rather toward increasing being obese rates international [six,7], mainly because of the time posts [8,nine,10]. In some studies, Glucose Sweetened Drinks (SSB) usage might have been associated with gaining weight in children and you can people , if you find yourself evidence you to coming down SSBs often reduce steadily the risk of obesity and you may related diseases for example diabetes has been seen because the persuasive . Time intake out-of drinks has grown drastically for the past 40 age by whenever 222 fat each people every day .

Still, products regarding some classes don’t lead equally so you’re able to times intake . The ability articles of the drink and use designs may suggest otherwise, i.e., specific caloric drinks tends to be consumed scarcely therefore contributing very little in order to every single day time intake. It’s been contended you to definitely replacing sweetened caloric beverages with liquid can help remove overall time intake when you look at the fat people . Nonetheless, usage of sweetened caloric beverages is actually a complicated point that can be considered outside the caloric contribution and also in this new perspective out of diet patterns .

More over, while doing so so you’re able to dinner application, individuals points such as for instance seasonality, physical exercise account and you may sex can affect the brand new diversity during the take in choice and you may sum to help you total opportunity intake. These types of things have not been fully examined; after that studies of this type will elucidate the present day matter of time intake away from dietary sources and you will regarding drinks in particular.

Inside an earlier investigation held in Greece, utilising the Liquids Harmony Survey (WBQ) equipment, we learned that inside 984 adults, 24% of intake of water arises from beverages . There is a keen unequivocal need to after that involved throughout these conclusions, elucidating the fresh new share of products to help you total opportunity intake and harmony.

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